Useful Information


The Rajasthan government has implemented minimum wages and standard working hours for domestic help, starting 1st January 2016. This is a major step in fighting the widespread exploitation of domestic workers not only in Rajasthan, but in India as a whole. Let’s get a better understanding of the need to look at the work conditions of domestic workers in India.

Who are domestic workers?

The National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) classifies the following occupations as domestic labour: housemaid/servant, cook, gardener, gatekeeper/chowkidar/watchman, governess/baby-sitter, tutor, driver and “others.” India had 4.2 million domestic workers during the year 2004-2005 (National Sample Survey Organization) of which women comprised the majority, and the number of domestic workers in urban areas increased by 68 percent between 1999-2000 and 2009-2010.*

What are their working conditions?

Domestic workers fall under the unorganized sector of the economy therefore their conditions are not regulated or supervised. Since they are not recognised under India’s labour laws, they are marginalized and often exploited. There are no formal employment contracts, leading to poor bargaining power, no legislative protection and inadequate welfare measures and meagre salaries. Domestic help earn as little as Rs.169.32 per day for men and Rs.64.79 for women.**

What has the government done to help them?

There have been efforts by the government to improve the conditions of domestic help. Tamil Nadu has included domestic workers in their Manual Workers Act. Karnataka and Kerala have notified a minimum wage for domestic workers.

Rajasthan has now introduced a more comprehensive notification aimed towards improving the condition of domestic workers.

Here are a few points on the notification issued by the government of Rajasthan:

The work hours for domestic help have been set at 8 hours a day. Anything over that is to be considered as overtime.

The minimum wage for domestic help is now set at Rs.5,642 per month, exclusive of food, accommodation and any other perks. Overtime hours are paid at double the rate.

Domestic help hired only for dishwashing and laundry are to be paid at Rs.705 per month for a household of four members. Above this they are to be paid 10 percent more for every additional household member.

This notification is applicable as of 1 January 2016, and will be enforced through surprise inspections.

This might be a very important step towards improving the conditions of millions of domestic workers in India.

Further, a draft National Policy for Domestic Workers from the Union Labour ministry seeks to provide a minimum wage of Rs.9000 per month, in addition to 15 days paid leave in a year for domestic workers, along with maternity leave.

The Rajasthan notification along with this policy may hopefully pave way towards better, more dignified working conditions for the large population of Indian citizens who comprise the domestic workforce.

While laws can change the situation of the unorganised labourers, we as citizen also need to do our bit towards it. How do you think we can prevent exploitation of workers in the unorganised sector? Share your views on this issue on our Facebook and Twitter pages, or email us at


*India Today


**United Nations in India



Child sexual abuse is any act that involves using a child for the sexual gratification of a more powerful person. Some forms of child sexual abuse consist of engaging with a child in sexual activities, exposure of body parts to a child or using a child to produce pornography. Abuse can occur anywhere, including home, school, or work. The abusers can be anyone—men, women or even older children. Most often they are known to the children they abuse.

According to the National Child Abuse Study in 2007, every second child has been subjected to one or more forms of sexual abuse. Over 21% of those interviewed said they were subjected to severe forms of sexual abuse. Of these 21%, 57% were boys and 43% were girls.


For survivors, the impact of child sexual abuse can be devastating. They may feel major grief and exhibit a wide range of psychological symptoms, both short- and long-term.

In the short-term, children may exhibit regressive behaviors like thumb-sucking and bed-wetting, sleep disturbances, problems in eating, behavior problems at school, and unwillingness to participate in school or social activities.

Longer-term effects may be quite extensive, including anxiety, self-destructive behaviors like alcoholism or drug abuse, insomnia and many more.

Survivors may panic and exhibit symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. They may experience problems in adult relationships and sexual functioning.

Survivors may feel annoyed at the mere mention of the abuser or the incident, at others who failed to guard them, and at themselves for not having been able to stop the abuse.

Some may not have any impact at all.


Child sexual abuse is not an accident and not necessarily a single event in the child’s life. Learn the early warning signs and ways to effectively voice out your concerns. Sexual abuse can be prevented. Adults must take the principal responsibility for protecting children by voicing out any doubtful behavior, which may risk the child’s safety.

Here are a few ways we can ensure child safety:

Show interest in their everyday lives. Get to know the people in your child’s life.

Choose caregivers vigilantly.

Teach children differences between safe and unsafe touches and encourage them to report it if they experience any unsafe touch or situation.

Let the child know that no one has the right to touch them in a way they don’t like or make them feel uncomfortable. Teach your child the names of their body parts. Teaching a child these words gives them the vocabulary to share when something is wrong.

Let them know it is not their fault and they won’t get in trouble if they speak up.

Take active steps NOW and help prevent child sexual abuse.

Arpan teaches personal safety skills to children in schools and provides therapeutic services to children and adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

To know more about Arpan and our work, visit arpan [dot] org [dot] in, or drop us a line at communication [at] arpan [dot] org [dot] in.

About the Author:

Pooja Taparia

Pooja Taparia is Founder and Chief Executive of Arpan, an NGO based in Mumbai with a mission to prevent the occurrence of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) and heal those who have been affected by it. She started work on CSA in 2006, and has grown the team from 3 to 60 professionals (the largest team in India) who run various activities, workshops, teaching, training and counselling services to deal with CSA. Pooja was awarded the Architects of the Future Award 2013-14, an international award for social entrepreneurs and her life work has been installed in the Melk Abbey, a museum in Austria. She is a graduate in Graphic Design and in Commerce. Pooja is a Director on the Board of UnLtd India and plays an advisory role on their strategies and programs.


Arpan is an award-winning organisation working hard to address the issue of child sexual abuse in India. Based in Mumbai, Arpan is the largest NGO in India in this specific area with over 60 social workers and counselors providing prevention and intervention services to children and adults. Over the last 9 years Arpan has reached out to over 120,000 children and adults directly through its services and over 500,000 indirectly through training and capacity building of various stakeholders. Arpan’s key project is teaching children personal safety skills in schools so that they can identify and seek help in an unsafe situation. Arpan also empowers teachers, parents with knowledge, attitude and skills to prevent and deal with child sexual abuse. Arpan aspires to reach out to millions of more children and adults to safeguard the innocent and vulnerable children and hopes to scale by building new engagement models with schools, the government, and other organisations around the country.